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雅思閱讀技巧分享:True/ False/ Not Given題型高分關鍵


雅思閱讀有許多不同的題型,今天要講的是絕對會命中的True/False/Not Given 以及Yes / No / Not Given 的題型。國中時只要題目是是非題大家都會特別開心,因為就算用猜的命中機率也是50%!但雅思的是非題多了一個Not given,這是什麼?而Yes/ No 和True /False 的差異性又是什麼?面對這樣的題目我到底該怎麼做? 我們今天就從這三個方向分別說明。

但在正式開始之前當然還是要先自我測試一下,我們先看看中文版的這個小文章:


“美國圈圈航空種族歧視事件:近日鬧得沸沸揚揚的美國圈圈航空種族歧視事件,在當地甚至是全球都造成了不少的關注,種族議題一直都是美國長期關注的議題,該國以達到完全的零種族歧視為目標,而近日發生的圈圈航空事件,對該航空甚至是該國都造成了不小的傷害,以下是該事件的簡述。

上個月30號,圈圈航空由於超售機票,同時又有四名非執勤的機組員需搭乘同班機前往洛杉磯執行接下來的飛行任務,因此在要求乘客主動放棄未果後,該航空之航警以強硬的手段連拖帶拉的將一名亞裔乘客強行從其座位拖離飛機,根據目擊者證詞,我們了解共有四名乘客被要求下機以騰出空間給四名額外的航空公司人員,而被強行拖離座位的亞裔乘客則是一名醫生。目擊者說當下場面混亂,該乘客甚至已經滿臉是血,仍被粗暴的帶離座位。”


請填 True /False /Not Given

1.     美國是一個對種族歧視議題很重視的國家

2.     於上個月30日發生的這個事件主要的原因是因為對機上的亞裔乘客的歧視

3.     四名被要求下機的乘客皆為亞洲人

 

你的答案是什麼呢?我們等等再解答。


先進入重點

1.     什麼是Not Given

Not Given 其實就是文中給的資料不足,無法判斷是否是正確的。

這個是考生們很容易跟False 搞錯的地方,因此我們在判斷到底是NG還是F 時,要注意『有沒有True的可能性在裡面』

For example (終於要來英文版了)

Article – In Thailand, female accounts for 52% of the total population.

Question 1 – The population of Thailand consists of more men.  >> FALSE

Question 2 – There are more women than men in Thailand. >> True

從以上這個題目來講,因為性別是二元的,不是男生就是女生,因此就算沒有提到男生這個字在原文中,你還是可以判斷男生是佔泰國人口數的48%。

 

那我們來看看下面這個例子

Article – Most tigers are living in Asia.

Question 1 – There are no tigers in Africa. >> Not Given

Question 2 – There are more tigers in Asia compared to other continents. >> True

從這題來看,因為不只有兩個洲(Asia and Africa)因此,我們無法確定到底非洲到底有沒有老虎,就算你昨天去非洲看到老虎了,你也只能寫Not Given 因為文中沒有寫明,所以『有可能非洲完全沒老虎』,很重要的一個關鍵是忽略你先前知道的知識,以此文章為主!

 

False 和 Not Given 的判別

False – 題目跟答案所述的內容完全不符、100%的錯誤,沒有其他可能性、或文章中明顯指出答案是另有其人

Not Given – 資訊不全,有可能是True 有可能是 False ,在資訊不全的狀況下我無法判斷

 

Now, 回到前面的中文題

1.     美國是一個對種族歧視議題很重視的國家 >> True

從文章中的『種族議題一直都是美國長期關注的議題,該國以達到完全的零種族歧視為目標』可以判斷出True 這個答案

2.     於上個月30日發生的這個事件主要的原因是因為對機上的亞裔乘客的歧視>> False

從文章中的『上個月30號,圈圈航空由於超售機票,同時又有四名非執勤的機組員需搭乘同班機前往洛杉磯執行接下來的飛行任務,因此在要求乘客主動放棄』可以得知,事件的主因是超售機票,而非種族歧視

3.     四名被要求下機的乘客皆為亞洲人>> Not Given

從文章中的『根據目擊者證詞,我們了解共有四名乘客被要求下機以騰出空間給四名額外的航空公司人員,而被強行拖離座位的亞裔乘客則是一名醫生。』僅可得知其中一名乘客是亞裔,並無法得知其他乘客是否為亞裔,但也有可能是,因此要寫Not Given

 

 

2.     Yes/ No/ Not Give 跟 True/ False / Not Given

這兩種並不是只是要trick 你,而是因為文章本質的不同,如果這篇文章是一個學術研究、歷史紀錄等,他會用True/ False / Not Given 的題型,因為其探討的是『事實』,若文章為作者對某件事情的意見與看法,他會用Yes/ No/ Not Give的題型。

 

了解這兩種題型本質上的差異,才能夠知道Yes 和 True 的不同之處在哪,才不會掉了冤望分。

True : 與文中事實相符

Yes : 作者的確有這個想法

 

看出來了嗎?從yes的描述可以知道,有時候答案是要推論出來的(infer),我們接下來就來看一篇經典例題(取自雅思官方模考)。

Article: Today approximately 16 species might be said to have been “saved” by captive breeding programmes, although a number of these can hardly be looked upon as resounding successes. Beyond that, about a further 20 species are being seriously considered for zoo conservation programmes. Given that the international conference at London Zoo was held 30 years ago, this is pretty slow progress, and a long way off Tudge’s target of 2,000.

 

Question: 22.  The number of successful zoo conservation programmes is unsatisfactory.

 

這題的正確答案要寫Yes,很多學生寫Not Given 因為作者沒寫到unsatisfactory或是相關的同義字,但我們從『Today approximately 16 species might be said to have been “saved”……… Given that the international conference at London Zoo was held 30 years ago, this is pretty slow progress, and a long way off Tudge’s target of 2,000.』可以得知效果是不彰的,因此可以“推論出”作者是有unsatisfactory這個意思在的。

 

3.     遇到這類型的題目要怎麼做

遇到這兩種題型,要很開心,因為可以很省時!

請按照以下步驟:

1.     劃題目關鍵字 >延伸閱讀:找關鍵字的方法

2.     回去文章中找到一堆關鍵字出現在一起的狀況

3.     看出現關鍵字的那一句

4.     找不到答案的話往前後各看一句,還是找不到就寫Not Given

 

練習

Step 1: 畫關鍵字



Step 2: 找關鍵字

One of London Zoo’s recent advertisements caused me some irritation, so patently did it distort reality. Headlined “Without zoos, you might as well tell these animals to get stuffed”, it was bordered with illustrations of several endangered species and went on to extol the myth that without zoos like London Zoo these animals “will almost certainly disappear forever”. With the zoo world’s rather mediocre record on conservation, one might be forgiven for being slightly sceptical about such an advertisement.

Step 3: 閱讀One of London Zoo’s recent advertisements caused me some irritation, so patently did it distort reality.

此處已可判斷答案:so patently did it distort reality 告訴我們答案是『Yes』


Step 2繼續找關鍵字:

Zoos were originally created as places of entertainment, and their suggested involvement with conservation didn’t seriously arise until about 30 years ago, when the Zoological Society of London held the first formal international meeting on the subject. Eight years later, a series of world conferences took place, entitled “The Breeding of Endangered Species”, and from this point onwards conservation became the zoo community’s buzzword. This commitment has now been clear defined in The World Zoo Conservation Strategy (WZCS, September 1993), which although an important and welcome document does seem to be based on an unrealistic optimism about the nature of the zoo industry.

Step 3閱讀:Zoos were originally created as places of entertainment, and their suggested involvement with conservationdidn’t seriously arise until about 30 years ago

此處已可判斷答案:their suggested involvement with conservation didn’t seriously arise until about 30 years ago 告訴我們答案是『Yes』

 

Step 2繼續找關鍵字:

The WZCS estimates that there are about 10,000 zoos in the world, of which around 1,000 represent a core of quality collections capable of participating in coordinated conservation programmes. This is probably the document’s first failing, as I believe that 10,000 is a serious underestimate of the total number of places masquerading as zoological establishments. Of course, it is difficult to get accurate data but, to put the issue into perspective, I have found that, in a year of working in Eastern Europe, I discover fresh zoos on almost a weekly basis.

Step 3 閱讀:The WZCS estimates that there are about 10,000 zoos in the world, of which around 1,000 represent a core of quality collections capable of participating in coordinated conservation programmes.

 

 

仍找不到答案

Step 4: 往前後各讀一句

(前)This commitment has now been clear defined in The World Zoo Conservation Strategy (WZCS, September 1993), which although an important and welcome document does seem to be based on an unrealistic optimism about the nature of the zoo industry.


The WZCS estimates that there are about 10,000 zoos in the world, of which around 1,000 represent a core of quality collections capable of participating in coordinated conservation programmes.

 

(後)This is probably the document’s first failing, as I believe that 10,000 is a serious underestimate of the total number of places masquerading as zoological establishments.

 

還是沒答案 : 寫『Not Given』

Tip: 從這邊可以看出來Eastern Europe 跟WZCS距離太遠,根本八竿子打不到一起,因此可以先默認答案為Not Given 了




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