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雅思閱讀技巧:Summary 題型破解



今天要分享的是雅思閱讀Summary 題型的技巧,上次在線上講座中有聽同學說起,做這個題目常常會錯,明明就找到段落了卻常常選錯字,我們今天就來探討看看這類型的題目要怎麼做。

首先,如果你還不清楚Skimming和Scanning 技巧的請看這篇

 

以下是Summary題型的基本注意事項

1.     我們需要用到Scanning 的技巧

2.     答案通常是按照順序出現的

3.     答案常常分佈在鄰近的兩三段裡

4.     有兩種題型,一是從文章中找字,二是理解文章後從選項中選擇適合的

5.     常常會需要寫不懂的字

6.     題目一題一題做即可,不需要一次畫好畫滿

 

Summary 題型的作答技巧

1.     先看Summary段落下的大標,確定是否知道在哪段

2.     畫第一題的關鍵字,關鍵字有兩種 – a. 能夠幫忙判斷答案的字(有資訊含量) b. 能夠快速找到的字(數字、大寫名詞等)

3.     畫完回去文章Scan,找到關鍵字,通常是一大群

4.     利用“判斷答案的關鍵字”來協助判斷哪個字是要找的答案

 

我們來實際演練

題目:

Questions 19-26:

Complete the summary below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 19-26 on your answer sheet.

 

Ventilation in 19th-century hospital wards

Professor Alan Short examined the work of John Shaw Billings, who influenced the architectural 19 ……………………… of hospitals to ensure they had good ventilation. He calculated that 20 ……………………….. in the air coming from patients suffering form 21……………………… would not have harmed other patients. He also found that the air in 22…………………………. In hospitals could change as often as in a modern operating theatre. He suggests that energy use could be reduced by locating more patients in 23 ………………………. areas.

A major reason for improving ventilation in 19th-century hospitals was the demand from the 24 ………………………….. for protection against bad air, known as 25 …………………………… These were blamed for the spread of disease for hundreds of years, including epidemics of 26…………………………… in London and Paris in the middle of the 19th century.

 

首先先畫第一題(19)的關鍵字

Ventilation in 19th-century hospital wards

Professor Alan Short examined the work of John Shaw Billings, who influenced the architectural 19 ……………………… of hospitals to ensure they had good ventilation.

 

在這邊我們要找的關鍵字 Ventilation (感覺沒什麼同義字)、19th-century, Alan Short, John Shaw Billings 這些都是容易幫我們找到定位點的關鍵字

而我們要找的19題的答案是 醫院的、建築上的 某事物,且這事物會確保好的Ventilation

 

接著你來試著找找看答案!

文章:

Back to the future skyscraper design

A

The Recovery of Natural Environments in Architecture by Professor Alan Short is the culmination of 30 years of research and award-winning green building design by Short and colleagues in Architecture, Engineering, Applied Maths and Earth Sciences at the University of Cambridge.

 

‘The crisis in building design is already here,’ said Short. ‘Policy makers think you can solve energy and building problems with gadgets. You can’t. As global temperatures continue to rise, we are going to continue to squander more and more energy on keeping our buildings mechanically cool until we have run out of capacity.’

 

B

Short is calling for a sweeping reinvention of how skyscrapers and major public buildings are designed – to end the reliance on sealed buildings which exist solely via the ‘life support’ system of vast air conditioning units.

Instead, he shows it is entirely possible to accommodate natural ventilation and cooling in large buildings by looking into the past, before the widespread introduction of air conditioning systems, which were ‘relentlessly and aggressively marketed’ by their inventors.

 

C

Short points out that to make most contemporary buildings habitable, they have to be sealed and air conditioned. The energy use and carbon emissions this generates is spectacular and largely unnecessary. Buildings in the West account for 40-50% of electricity usage, generating substantial carbon emissions, and the rest of the world is catching up at a frightening rate. Short regards glass, steel and air-conditioned skyscrapers as symbols of status, rather than practical ways of meeting our requirements.

 

D

Short’s book highlights a developing and sophisticated art and science of ventilating buildings through the 19th and earlier-20th centuries, including the design of ingeniously ventilated hospitals. Of particular interest were those built to the designs of John Shaw Billings, including the first Johns Hopkins Hospital in the US city of Baltimore (1873-1889). ‘We spent three years digitally modelling Billings’ final designs,’ says Short. ‘We put pathogens* in the airstreams, modelled for someone with tuberculosis (TB) coughing in the wards and we found the ventilation systems in the room would have kept other patients safe from harm.

 

E

‘We discovered that 19th-century hospital wards could generate up to 24 air changes an hour – that’s similar to the performance of a modern-day, computer-controlled operating theatre. We believe you could build wards based on these principles now.

Single rooms are not appropriate for all patients. Communal wards appropriate for certain patients – older people with dementia, for example – would work just as well in today’s hospitals, at a fraction of the energy cost.’

Professor Short contends the mindset and skill-sets behind these designs have been completely lost, lamenting the disappearance of expertly designed theatres, opera houses, and other buildings where up to half the volume of the building was given over to ensuring everyone got fresh air.

 

F

Much of the ingenuity present in 19th-century hospital and building design was driven by a panicked public clamouring for buildings that could protect against what was thought to be the lethal threat of miasmas – toxic air that spread disease. Miasmas were feared as the principal agents of disease and epidemics for centuries, and were used to explain the spread of infection from the Middle Ages right through to the cholera outbreaks in London and Paris during the 1850s. Foul air, rather than germs, was believed to be the main driver of ‘hospital fever’, leading to disease and frequent death. The prosperous steered clear of hospitals.

While miasma theory has been long since disproved, Short has for the last 30 years advocated a return to some of the building design principles produced in its wake.

 

G

Today, huge amounts of a building’s space and construction cost are given over to air conditioning. ‘But I have designed and built a series of buildings over the past three decades which have tried to reinvent some of these ideas and then measure what happens.

‘To go forward into our new low-energy, low-carbon future, we would be well advised to look back at design before our high-energy, high-carbon present appeared. What is surprising is what a rich legacy we have abandoned.

 

H

Successful examples of Short’s approach include the Queen’s Building at De Montfort University in Leicester. Containing as many as 2,000 staff and students, the entire building is naturally ventilated, passively cooled and naturally lit, including the two largest auditoria, each seating more than 150 people. The award-winning building uses a fraction of the electricity of comparable buildings in the UK.

 

繼續解題:我們的關鍵字在D段出現一大堆

 

D

Short’s book highlights a developing and sophisticated art and science of ventilating buildings through the 19th and earlier-20th centuries, including the design of ingeniously ventilated hospitals. Of particular interest were those built to the designs of John Shaw Billings, including the first Johns Hopkins Hospital in the US city of Baltimore (1873-1889). ‘We spent three years digitally modelling Billings’ final designs,’ says Short. ‘We put pathogens* in the airstreams, modelled for someone with tuberculosis (TB) coughing in the wards and we found the ventilation systems in the room would have kept other patients safe from harm.

 

找到關鍵字我們可以判斷,答案是 including the design of ingeniously ventilated hospitals.

醫院的『design』

 

再試試:

 

He calculated that 20 ……………………….. in the air coming from patients suffering form 21……………………… would not have harmed other patients.

 

20, 21在同一句,我們就一起做。

從我們畫起來的關鍵字可以得知:

第20題我們要找的是『在空氣中的』某東西,而且這東西來自『病人』

第21題我們要找的是『疾病名稱』,因為他說patients suffering from … 所以我們可以知道一定是得到什麼病的病人。

 

因為答案是按照順序出現而且照理來說不會距離太遠,因此我們更容易找到關鍵字,就在D段的下半部

D

Short’s book highlights a developing and sophisticated art and science of ventilating buildings through the 19th and earlier-20th centuries, including the design of ingeniously ventilated hospitals. Of particular interest were those built to the designs of John Shaw Billings, including the first Johns Hopkins Hospital in the US city of Baltimore (1873-1889). ‘We spent three years digitally modelling Billings’ final designs,’ says Short. ‘We put pathogens* in the airstreams, modelled for someone with tuberculosis (TB) coughing in the wards and we found the ventilation systems in the room would have kept other patients safe from harm.

 

從這裡我們可以判斷出,第20題在空氣中的』某東西是 pathogens

而21題病人的疾病,是tuberculosis

 

你可能會覺得,我哪會這些字?! 但前面有提到,你常常要寫自己不懂的字,從這裡in the airstreams這句可以判斷,在空氣中的東西就是前面pathogens這個字,而要找的疾病名稱,是從someone with (某人有著什麼)而且後面又有血coughing(咳嗽),可以判斷出tuberculosis這個字,除此之外,疾病的名稱也通常是看起來很難的醫學名稱,因此這時就算無法找出其他的線索,也可以大膽寫這個字唷!

畢竟雅思是一個考試,分秒必爭,在最短的時間內快速的判斷出最適合的字,且不要過度執著於不懂的字,都是考試技巧的一環。

 

想多練習的同學們可以試著完成這題唷:

Ventilation in 19th-century hospital wards

Professor Alan Short examined the work of John Shaw Billings, who influenced the architectural 19 design of hospitals to ensure they had good ventilation. He calculated that 20 pathogens in the air coming from patients suffering form 21 tuberculosis would not have harmed other patients. He also found that the air in 22…………………………. In hospitals could change as often as in a modern operating theatre. He suggests that energy use could be reduced by locating more patients in 23 ………………………. areas.

A major reason for improving ventilation in 19th-century hospitals was the demand from the 24 ………………………….. for protection against bad air, known as 25 …………………………… These were blamed for the spread of disease for hundreds of years, including epidemics of 26…………………………… in London and Paris in the middle of the 19th century.

 

雅思閱讀有11種不同的題型,想學所有的技巧,歡迎報名本課程:



歡迎加入我們的『雅思7.0衝刺計畫』,團體課加所有雅思影片課吃到飽,限時特惠中唷!

*每週超過20堂小班團體課程一班最多4-8人,一人也開班,練習不是問題!

*超過10種雅思必備技巧課程,隨時隨地上課,不用再花大錢單一購買課程包!





 

See you guys next time!

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