英文寫作: 快速思考能力培養,讓你每個段落都精彩萬分



最近遇到一個狀況是,學生英文能力明顯有IELTS 6以上,但寫出來的文章卻十分空洞,在英文寫作中常常遇到的三個問題:


(1) 中翻英在寫,想破頭不知道怎麼用英文單字或語句表達想表達的意思


(2) 時間不夠我寫


(3) 想不到內容寫


今天這篇文章可以協助各位慢慢地解決(2)和(3)的部分,請記住,英文不是一天兩天練成的功夫,但也不會台上一分鐘台下十年功,只要持續學習,英文可以讓你在台上一輩子J


廢話不多說,今天要教大家的是”段落寫作的思考模式”



在英文寫作中,每個段落都有固定的形式,第一句一定要是你的主旨(topic sentence)然後最後一句是結語句(concluding sentence)如果對於架構尚不清楚的同學請先看本篇


請注意,本篇是教你如何思考「一個段落中能寫什麼」,而不是一個「文章題目中可以寫什麼」,例如題目為: Do you agree that money isn’t everything. 請先自己有論點,像這種agree不agree的題目你就要先想清楚,你要寫的是同意還是不同意,接著發展論點(整篇文章寫作會用另外一篇文章告訴大家),我們今天是要針對發展出的論點,將其內容豐富化。


假設我們這篇文章發展出的其中一個段落是: Money isn’t everything since it cannot bring back our health.



那我們需要的是這樣的結構



1.Main point 段落主軸


Many people claim the importance of money; while in my opinion, money isn’t everything since it cannot buy health.



2.原因


Health is something irretrievable. Many diseases are incurable. Once you got them, even a great amount of money could not bring your health back.



3.範例


Take cancers as examples, statistics show that cancers are the main cause of death nowadays. No matter you are rich or poor, many cancers cannot be cured.



4.比較


Even though money is helpful when it comes to buying medicine, many riches still died of severe diseases.



5.結果


From the points above, money isn’t as important as our health.



以上短短的一段其實就佔了70個字,就一篇五段式的文章來說,其實已經是非常充足的一段了。


因此,只要按照段落主軸(main idea)>> 原因>>範例>>比較>>結果來寫作,基本上一個段落的內容量是相當多的。



以下我們來細談每段裡面主要要寫的東西



1.段落主軸


這段非常的重要,是整個段落的主要論點,後面的所有句子都不可以離開這個主軸,因此它被放在思考的中心點,並由這個點向外擴張成一個心智圖(mind map)。


*如果你連主軸都無法想到,那代表你平時的閱讀量不夠,意即你對很多事情都沒想法,這不是英文能力的問題,而是腦子裡的東西不夠多元,需藉由多方的閱讀來提升。


段落主軸可使用以下結構寫作


(1)描寫趨勢>>>(2)提出意見>>(3)解釋原因


(1)Many people claim the importance of money; (2)while in my opinion, money isn’t everything (3) since it cannot buy health.


1.1描寫趨勢: 相當於文章寫作的第一段introduction會使用的方式。


參考句型:


It is often said that …


Many people claim that …


Nowadays,…/ These days,…/ We live in the age that many of us ….


…. is a hotly debated topic that often divides opinions



1.2提出意見: 在雅思、托福、學術寫作盡量不要用到第一人稱去提出意見,記得只要是你寫的,就是你的意見,除非你有提出學者名。


參考句型:


As far as I am concerned,/ in my opinion,/ from my point of view,/ personally speaking, /



1.3解釋原因: 解釋的原因就是你底下要詳加敘述的「主軸」,以本篇來說”錢買不到健康”就是主軸。


參考句型:


The reason why …. is that …/ The reason to which is …


because/ since




2.提出原因: 直接講出原因,可利用條列式方法探討(若有超過一個原因)。


參考句型:


Firstly, let’s take a look at …/ to start with, …


First of all, it is worth considering…


Second/secondly/third/thirdly….


Furthermore/ moreover/in addition/ on top of that/ also,…


Another factor to be considered is …


Lastly,/ finally…



3.範例: 提出個人經驗,或說某某作者、某某研究提出的觀點,後者較有說服力。


參考句型:


According to many experts/scholars/researches/studies,…


Statistic suggest that …


Research has found/shown that …


There are many who argue that …


In terms of …, …




4.比較: 提出比較也是一種強化論點的概念,但是注意,這樣的比較不是要你說: “雖然錢買不到健康,但沒錢萬萬不能”,因為這樣的比較會讓你的段落瞬間弱掉,因此你要提出的是些微的美中不足,然後再去強調你的段落主軸: “雖然有錢可以讓我們買藥物治療,但是許多有錢人仍敵不過病魔”。


參考句型:


Although/ even though…, …


Despite/ in spite of...,…


Despite the fact that …


On one hand, …; on the other hand, …


However,/ nevertheless,/ even so,/



5.提出結果: 針對上面的論證做出結論並再次強調主軸,最好使用不同的方式寫作(paraphrasing),不要寫出跟主旨句一模一樣的句子。


參考句型:


As a result,/ as a result of …,/ consequently,…/ therefore,…/ on account of …/ due to…,


… has led to …/ … has result in …


All things considered, …/ taking everything into consideration, …



範文分析: 試著分析看看這篇文章哪句屬於以上哪個部分


Technology makes people get lazier which contributes to health problems in a great degree. Nowadays, everything can be control remotely, which greatly reduces people's movement. Before cars were invented, people used bikes or their own foot. Before computers were invented, people went to libraries to get information. Researches have shown that our daily activities have been significantly reduced since 20 years ago. Scholars believe that the improvement of the convenience of our lives is one of the main reason. However, despite the convenience technology has brought to us, the significant reduction of exercise has become one of the causes of obesity and other diseases. As a result, the development of technology somehow contributes to our illness as well.



練習: 以下挑選一個段落主題來寫一個段落吧!


1. Should death penalty be abolished?


2. Is solo travelling better than group travelling?


3. Separate girls and boys in schools.



請直接回覆,並試著用上面給各位的結構唷!



本篇內容皆由Joanna原創,請勿任意轉載。






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