* 注意: 裡面的x y都是放學者名唷。
Argue: 在學術寫作中，argue並沒有爭執的負面情緒在裡面，只是表達意見的一種方式，其實義同於suggest。 1. Along similar lines, [X] argues that ___. 2. There seems to be no compelling reason to argue that ___. 3. As a rebuttal to this point, it could be argued that ___. 4. There are [three] main arguments that can be advanced to support ___. 5. The underlying argument in favor of / against [X] is that ___. 6. [X]’s argument in favor of / against [Y] runs as follows: ___.
Claim: claim可以當動詞也可以當名詞，意思為「聲稱、表示」 7. In this [paper], I put forward the claim that ___. 8. [X] develops the claim that ___. 9. There is ample / growing support for the claim that ___. 10. [X]’s findings lend support to the claim that ___. 11. Taking a middle-ground position, [X] claims that ___.
Data: 表示資料或數據，可作為單數以及複數使用。 12. The data gathered in the [pilot study(資料收集工具測試)] suggest that ___. 13. The data appears to suggest that ___.
*利用appear來避免過度概括(over generalization)) 14. The data yielded by this [study] provide strong / convincing evidence that ___. 15. A closer look at the data indicates that ___. 16. The data generated by [X] are reported in [table 1]. 17. The aim of this [section] is to generalize beyond the data and ___.
Debate: 爭論，用來表示兩個不同立場的論述 18. [X] has encouraged debate on ___. 19. There has been an inconclusive debate about whether ___. 20. The question of whether ___ has caused much debate in [our profession] [over the years]. 21. (Much of) the current debate revolves around ___.
Discussion 通常是指對收集到的資料的討論。 22. In this section / chapter, the discussion will point to ___. 23. The foregoing discussion implies that ___. 24. For the sake of discussion, I would like to argue that ___. 25. In this study, the question under discussion is ___.
* under discussion 有待討論 26. In this paper, the discussion centers on ___. 27. [X] lies at the heart of the discussion on ___.
Evidence: 在學術寫作中通常是指支持某論點的”證明” 28. The available evidence seems to suggest that ___ / point to ___. 29. On the basis of the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that ___. 30. There is overwhelming evidence for the notion that ___. 31. Further (更進一步的) evidence supporting / against [X] may lie in the findings of [Y], who ___. 32. These results provide confirmatory evidence that ___.
Ground 意指原因或是根據 33. I will now summarize the ground covered in this [chapter] by ___. 34. On logical grounds, there is no compelling reason to argue that ___. 35. [X] takes a middle-ground position on [Y] and argues that ___. 36. On these grounds, we can argue that ___. 37. [X]’s views are grounded on the assumption that ___.
Issue 議題、問題 38. This study is an attempt to address the issue of ___.
*address為常見學術寫作動詞，表示處理、應付 39. In the present study, the issue under scrutiny is ___. 40. The issue of whether ___ is clouded by the fact that ___. 41. To portray the issue in [X]’s terms, ___. 42. Given the centrality of this issue to [my claim], I will now ___. 43. This [chapter] is concerned with the issue of [how/whether/what] ___.
*be concerned with 和…有關Literature 文獻 44. [X] is prominent in the literature on [Y]. 45. There is a rapidly growing literature on [X], which indicates that ___. 46. The literature shows no consensus on [X], which means that ___. 47. The (current) literature on [X] abounds with examples of ___.
Premise 前提、假定 48. The main theoretical premise behind [X] is that ___. 49. [X] and [Y] share an important premise: ___. 50. [X] is premised on the assumption that ___. 51. The basic premises of [X]’s theory / argument are ___. 52. The arguments against [X]’s premise rest on [four] assumptions: ___.
Research研究 53.This study draws on research conducted by ___.
*draw on 利用、依賴、根據 54. Although there has been relatively little research on / into [X], ___.
*relatively很適合用在學術寫作，意思為「相對地」，加進去這個字後會讓整個論點變得比較公正客觀。 55. In the last [X] years, [educational] research has provided ample support for the assertion that ___. 56. Current research appears / seems to validate the view that ___. 57. Research on / into ___ does not support the view that ___. 58. Further research in this area may include ___ and ___. 59. Evidence for [X] is borne out by research that shows ___. 60. There is insufficient research on / into ___ to draw any firm conclusions about / on ___. *draw a conclusion 得出結論
View觀點、論點 61. The consensus view seems to be that ___. 62. [X] propounds the view that ___. 63. Current research (does not) appear(s) to validate such a view. 64. There have been dissenters to the view that ___. 65. The answer to [X] / The difference between [X] and [Y] is not as clear-cut as popular views might suggest. 66. The view that _____ is in line with [common sense]. 67. I am not alone in my view that ___. 68. [X] puts forward the view that ___. 69. [X]’s views rest on the assumption that ___.